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Experimental Orthopedics

Principal investigator

Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Susanne Grässel

Consortium ExCarBon

Logo Excarbon


Web: https://www.excarbon.com

Lab Biopark


Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Susanne Grässel
Orthopedic Surgery
Div. Experimental Orthopedics
ZMB / BioPark 1

Am Biopark 9
D-93053 Regensburg

Phone: +49 941 943-5065
Fax: +49 941 943-5066

E-mail: susanne.graessel[at]klinik.uni-regensburg.de
Web: Center for medical Biotechnology



Publication record

Joachim Grifka

Please find research profile and publication record of Prof. Dr. Dr. Grifka on the homepage of the Asklepios-Kliniken.

Susanne Grässel

Publication record of the past 7 years (from 2010)


1.Grässel S., Rickert M., Opolka A., Bosserhoff A.K., Angele P., Grifka J., Anders S.: Coculture between periosteal explants and articular chondrocytes induce expression of TGF-ß1 and collagen I. Rheumatology (Oxford) 49 (2): 218-230, 2010.

2.Ratzinger S., Eble J.A., Pasoldt A., Opolka A., Rogler G., Grifka J., Grässel S.: Collagen XVI induces formation of focal contacts on intestinal myofibroblasts isolated from the normal and inflamed intestinal tract. Matrix Biol. Apr;29 (3):177-93, 2010

3.Jenei-Lanzl Z., Dienstknecht T., Huber M., Kujat R., Angele M., Straub R., Grässel S., Nerlich M., Angele P.: Estradiol inhibits chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via non-classical signalling. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2010 Apr;62(4):1088-96.

4.Schubert T., Schlegel J., Schmid R., Opolka A., Grässel S., Bosserhoff A.: Modulation of cartilage differentiation by MIA/CD-RAP. Exp. Mol. Med. Mar 31;42(3):166-74, 2010.

5.Grässel S., Beckmann J., Rath B., Vogel M., Grifka J., Tingart M.: Expression profile of matrix metalloprotease-2 and -9 and their endogenous inhibitors in osteonecrotic femoral heads. Int. J. Mol. Med. Jul;26(1):127-33, 2010.

6.Riepl B., Grässel S., Wiest R., Fleck M., Straub R.H.: Tumor necrosis factor and norepinephrine lower the levels of human neutrophil peptides 1-3 secretion by mixed synovial tissue cultures in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. Jun 4;12(3):R110, 2010.

7.Schmid R., Schiffner S., Opolka A., Grässel S., Schubert T., Moser M., Bosserhoff A.K.: Enhanced cartilage regeneration in MIA/CD-RAP deficient mice. Cell Death Dis., 1:e97-107, 2010.

8.Rickert M., Dreier R., Radons J., Opolka A., Grifka J., Anders S., Grässel S.: Interaction of periosteal explants with articular chondrocytes alter expression profile of matrix metalloproteinases. J. Orthop. Res. Dec; 28 (12):1576-85, 2010.

9.Wenke A.K., Niebler S., Grässel S., Bosserhoff A.K.: The transcription factor AP-2ɛ regulates CXCL1 during cartilage development and in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. Feb;19(2):206-12, 2011.

10.Ratzinger S., Grässel S., Dowejko A., Reichert T.E., Bauer R.J.: Induction of type XVI collagen expression facilitates proliferation of oral cancer cells. Matrix Biol. 30(2):118-25. 2011.

11.Bauer R., Ratzinger S., Wales L., Bosserhoff A., Senner V., Grifka J., Grässel S.: Inhibition of collagen XVI expression reduces glioma cell invasiveness. Cell. Physiol. Biochem., Apr 27 (3-4):217-226, 2011.

12.Rath B., Nam J., Deschner J., Schaumburger J., Tingart M., Grässel S., Grifka J., Agarwal S.: Biomechanical forces exert anabolic effects on osteoblasts by activation of SMAD 1/5/8 through type 1 BMP receptor. Biorheology, Jan 1;48(1):37-48. 2011.

13.Lechler P, Balakrishnan S, Schaumburger J, Grässel S, Baier C, Grifka J, Straub RH, Renkawitz T. The oncofetal gene survivin is re-expressed in osteoarthritis and promotes proliferation and cell survival in chondrocytes in vitro. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 12:150, 2011.

14.Opolka A., Straub R.H., Pasoldt A., Grifka J., Grässel S.: Substance P and norepinephrine modulate chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 64 (3):729-739, 2012.

15.Winkler S., Grässel S., Baier C., Anders S., Lechler P., Grifka J., Schaumburger J.: The impact of chemical synovectomy with sodium morrhuate on human chondrocytes and cartilage in vitro. Rheumatol Int. May;33(5):1201-6, 2013.

16.Stöckl S., Bauer R., Bosserhoff A., Göttl C., Grifka J., Grässel S.: Sox9 modulates cell survival and adipogenic differentiation of multipotent adult rat mesenchymal stem cells. J. Cell Sci.,Jul 1;126(Pt 13):2890-902, 2013.

17.Stöckl S., Göttl C., Grifka J., Grässel S.: Sox9 modulates proliferation and expression of osteogenic markers of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC). Cell. Physiol. Biochem.; 31(4-5): 703-17, 2013.

18.Pongratz G., Anthofer J.M., Melzer M., Anders S., Grässel S., Straub R.H.: IL-7 receptor α expressing B cells act proinflammatory in collagen-induced arthritis and are inhibited by sympathetic neurotransmitters. Ann Rheum Dis. Jan 1;73(1):306-12, 2014.

19.Bedal K.B., Grässel S., Oefner P.J., Reinders J., Reichert T.E., Bauer R.: Collagen XVI Induces Expression of MMP9 via Modulation of AP-1 Transcription Factors and Facilitates Invasion of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. PLoS One Jan 23;9(1):e86777, 2014 doi: 10.1371

20.Jenei-Lanzl Z., Grässel S., Pongratz G. Kees F., Miosge N., Angele P., Straub R.H.: Norepinephrine inhibits mesenchymal stem cell and chondrogenic progenitor cell chondrogenesis and accelerates chondrogenic hypertrophy. Arthritis Rheumatol. Sep;66(9):2472-81, 2014

21.Leyh M., Seitz A., Dürselen L., Springorum H.R., Angele P., Ignatius A., Grifka J., Grässel S.: Osteoarthritic cartilage explants affect extracellular matrix production and composition in cocultured bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and articular chondrocytes. Stem Cell Res Ther. Jun 10;5(3):77, 2014.

22.Niedermair T., Kuhn V., Doranehgard F., Stange R., Wieskötter B., Beckmann J., Salmen P., Springorum H.R., Straub R.H., Zimmer A., Grifka J., Grässel S.: Absence of substance P and the sympathetic nervous system impact on bone structure and chondrocyte differentiation in an adult model of endochondral ossification. Matrix Biol. Sep;38:22-35, 2014

23.Lorenz J., Seebach E., Hackmayer G., Greth C., Bauer R.J., Kleinschmidt K., Bettenworth D., Böhm M., Grifka J., Grässel S.: Melanocortin 1 receptor-signaling deficiency results in an articular cartilage phenotype and accelerates pathogenesis of surgically induced murine osteoarthritis. PLoS One, Sep 5;9(9):e105858, 2014

24.Leyh M., Seitz A., Dürselen L.,Schaumburger J., Ignatius A., Grifka J., Grässel S.: Subchondral bone influences chondrogenic differentiation and collagen production of human bone marrow-derived stem cells and articular chondrocytes. Arthritis Res. Ther. Oct 7;16(5):453. [Epub ahead of print], 2014

25.Stangl H., Springorum H.R., Muschter D., Grässel S., Straub R.H.: Catecholaminergic-to-cholinergic transition of sympathetic nerve fibers is stimulated under healthy but not under inflammatory arthritic conditions. Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Feb 28. pii: S0889-1591(15)00064-1. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2015.02.022. [Epub ahead of print]

26.Muschter D., Göttl C., Vogel M., Grifka J., Straub R.H., Grässel S.: Reactivity of rat bone marrow derived macrophages to neurotransmitter stimulation in the context of collagen II induced arthritis. Arthritis Res. Ther. 2015 Jun 24;17(1):169

27.Lorenz J., Schäfer N., Bauer R., Jenei-Lanzl Z., Springorum R.H., Grässel S.: Norepinephrine modulates osteoarthritic chondrocyte metabolism and inflammatory responses. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2015 Aug 29; pii: S1063-4584(15)01290-X. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2015.08.007. [Epub ahead of print]

28.Bedal K.B., Grässel S., Spanier G., Reichert T.E., Bauer R.J.: The NC11 domain of human collagen XVI induces vasculogenic mimicry in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Carcinogenesis 2015 Nov;36(11):1429-39. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgv141. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

29.Muschter D., Schäfer N., Stangl H., Straub R.H., Grässel S.: Sympathetic Neurotransmitters Modulate Osteoclastogenesis and Osteoclast Activity in the Context of Collagen-Induced Arthritis. PLoS One 2015 Oct 2;10(10):e0139726. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139726. eCollection 2015.

30.Winkler S., Niedermair T., Füchtmeier B., Grifka J., Grässel S., Anders S., Heers G., Wagner F.: The impact of hypoxia on mesenchymal progenitor cells of human skeletal tissue in the pathogenesis of heterotopic ossification. Int Orthop. 2015 Dec;39(12):2495-501. doi: 10.1007/s00264-015-2995-0. Epub 2015 Oct 3.

31.Böhm M., Apel M., Lowin T., Lorenz J., Jenei-Lanzl Z., Capellino S., Dosoki H., Luger T.A., Straub R.H., Grässel S.: α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone modulates cell adhesion and inflammatory responses of synovial fibroblasts from patients with osteoarthritis. Biochemical Pharmacology, 2016 Sep. 15; 116:89-99.

32.Mayer U., Benditz A., Grässel S.: miR-29b regulates expression of collagens I and III in chondrogenically differentiating BMSC in an osteoarthritic environment. Sci Rep., 2017 Oct. 16; 7 (1): 13297.


1.Grässel S., Anders S.: Cell-based therapy options for osteochondral defects. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells compared to autologous chondrocytes. Orthopäde: May 41(5):415-28, 2012

2.Böhm M., Grässel S.: Role of proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides and their receptors in the osteoarticular system: from basic to translational research. Endocrine Rev Aug; 33(4):623-51, 2012.

3.Grässel S., Bauer R.J.: Collagen XVI in health and disease. Matrix Biol. 32 (2): 64-73, 2013

4.Grässel S., Lorenz J.: Tissue-engineering strategies to repair chondral and osteochondral tissue in osteoarthritis: Use of mesenchymal stem cells. Curr Rheumatol Rep.Oct;16(10):452, 2014

5.Grässel S.: The role of peripheral nerve fibers and their neurotransmitters in cartilage and bone physiology and pathophysiology. Arthritis Res Ther.;16(6):485, 2014

6.Grässel S., Muschter D.: Peripheral nerve fibers and their neurotransmitters in osteoarthritis pathology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. Apr 28;18(5). pii: E931. doi: 10.3390/ijms18050931, 2017


1.Grässel S., Dreier R.: Effect of cellular microenvironment and paracrine signals on chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells. Book: “Stem cells, regenerative Medicine and Cancer”. Published by Nova Science Publisher Inc., ISBN: 978-1-61728-787, 2011

2.Grässel S., Stöckl S., Jenei-Lanzl Z.: Isolation, culture and osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;879:203-67

3.Lorenz J., Grässel S.: Experimental osteoarthritis models in mice. Mouse Genetics. Methods and Protocols. Series: Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1194, ISBN 978-1-4939-1214-8;1194:401-19,2014

4.Grässel S.: Collagens in hyaline cartilage. Cartilage Vol. 1 Physiology and Development. Springer, Eds. Grässel S. & Aszodi A.; ISBN 978-3-319-29566-4, 2016

5.Grässel, S., R.H. Straub, Jenei-Lanzl, Z. The sensory and sympathetic nervous system in cartilage physiology and pathophysiology. Cartilage Vol. 2, Pathophysiology, Eds. Grässel S. & Aszodi A.; Springer ISBN 978-3-319-45801-4, 2017

  1. Fakultät für Medizin


Experimentelle Orthopädie

Prof. Dr. Susanne Grässel

Zentrum für Medizinische Biotechnologie

Prof. Dr. Susanne Grässel

Tel. +49 (0) 941 943-5065
Fax +49 (0) 941 943-5066