Research and teaching in the Gruber Research Group is focused on the analysis of outstanding professional performers and educational means to foster their acquisition of expertise. Studies are conducted in a variety of domains (for example medicine, business management, science, music, and arts), using a large variety of empirical research methods (from eye-tracking analyses to biographical records of practice activities). The GRG trusts that the key to understanding reproducible superior performance is the notion that expertise can be acquired through deliberate practice. Effortful training activities lead to domain-specific cognitive, physiological, motor and perceptual adaptations. In addition to such individual adaptations, social adaptations are investigated as well in order to understand the social embedding of expertise, for example the changing participation in professional networks during the growth of individual excellence.